Textbook of Endodontology, 2nd Edition
November 2009, Wiley-Blackwell
List of Contributors.
1 Introduction to endodontology (Claes Reit, Gunnar Bergenholtz and Preben Hørsted-Bindslev).
The dawn of modern endodontology.
The objective of endodontic treatment.
Clinical problems and solutions.
The diagnostic dilemma.
The tools of treatment.
Extraction and dental implant?
Part 1 The Vital Pulp.
2 The dentine–pulp complex: responses to adverse influences (Leif Olgart and Gunnar Bergenholtz).
Constituents and normal functions of the dentine–pulp complex.
Appropriate responses of the healthy pulp to non-destructive stimuli.
Responses to external threats.
Effects of potentially destructive stimuli.
3 Dentinal and pulpal pain (Matti Närhi).
Classification of nerve fibers.
Morphology of intradental sensory innervation.
Function of intradental sensory nerves under normal conditions.
Sensitivity of dentine: hydrodynamic mechanism in pulpal A-fiber activation.
Responses of intradental nerves to tissue injury and inflammation.
Local control of pulpal nociceptor activation.
Pain symptoms and pulpal diagnosis.
4 Treatment of vital pulp conditions (Preben Hørsted-Bindslev and Gunnar Bergenholtz).
Factors influencing choice of treatment.
Management of exposed pulps by direct pulp capping/partial pulpotomy.
5 Endodontics in primary teeth (Ingegerd Mejàre).
The normal pulp.
Pulp inflammation in the primary tooth.
Wound dressings – characteristics, modes of action and reported clinical success rates.
Objectives of pulp treatment.
Operative treatment procedures.
Indications and contra-indications for pulp treatment in primary teeth.
Part 2 The Necrotic Pulp.
6 The microbiology of the necrotic pulp (Gunnel Svensäter, Luis Chàvez de Paz and Else Theilade).
Evidence for the essential role of micro-organisms in apical periodontitis.
Routes of microbial entry to the pulpal space.
Modes of colonization.
Ecological determinants for microbial growth in root canals.
Methods for studying the root canal microflora.
Composition of the endodontic microflora.
Association of signs and symptoms with specific bacteria.
7 Apical periodontitis (Zvi Metzger, Itzhak Abramovitz and Gunnar Bergenholtz).
The nature of apical periodontitis.
Interactions with the infecting microbiota.
Clinical manifestations and diagnostic terminology.
8 Systemic complications of endodontic infections (Nils Skaug and Vidar Bakken).
Acute periapical infections as the origin of metastatic infections.
Chronic periapical infections as origin of metastatic infections.
9 Treatment of the necrotic pulp (Paul Wesselink and Gunnar Bergenholtz).
Objectives and general treatment strategies.
Scheme for a routine procedure in RCT.
Considerations in complex cases.
Effects of RCT on the intracanal microbiota.
Management of symptomatic lesions.
Part 3 Endodontic Treatment Procedures.
10 The surgical microcope (Pierre Machtou).
Ergonomics and working techniques.
11 Root canal instrumentation (Lars Bergmans and Paul Lambrechts).
Principles of root canal instrumentation.
Root canal system anatomy.
Limitations of root canal instrumentation.
Preventing procedural mishaps.
12 Root filling materials (Gottfried Schmalz and Preben Hörsted-Bindslev).
Materials for retrograde fillings (root-end fillings) and replantation.
Mandibular nerve injuries.
13 Root filling techniques (Paul Wesselink).
Selecting a root canal filling material.
Root filling techniques for gutta-percha.
Root filling techniques employing gutta-percha and sealer.
Procedures prior to root canal filling.
Assessing root filling quality.
Filling of the pulp chamber and coronal restoration.
Conclusions and recommendations.
Part 4 Diagnostic Considerations and Clinical Decision Making.
14 Diagnosis of pulpal and periapical disease (Claes Reit and Kerstin Petersson).
Evaluation of diagnostic information.
Clinical manifestations of pulpal and periapical inflammation.
Collecting diagnostic information.
15 Diagnosis and management of endodontic complications to dental trauma (John Whitworth).
Common dental injuries.
Dental trauma and its consequences.
General considerations in the management of dental trauma.
Diagnostic quandaries – to remove or review the pulp after trauma?
Pulp regeneration – the dawn of a new era?
16 The multi-dimensional nature of pain (Ilana Eli and Peter Svensson).
Neurobiological factors affecting the pain experience.
Psychological factors affecting the pain experience.
Gender and pain.
Management and treatment of pain.
17 Clinical epidemiology (Claes Reit and Lise-Lotte Kirkevang).
Prevalence, frequency and incidence.
Risk for AP.
Longevity of root filled teeth.
Back to the case.
18 Endodontic decision making (Claes Reit).
The outcome of endodontic treatment.
Factors influencing treatment outcome.
Prevalence of endodontic “failures”.
Variation in the management of periapical lesions in endodontically treated teeth.
Clinical decision making: descriptive projects.
Endodontic retreatment decision making: a normative approach.
Part 5 The Root Filled Tooth.
19 The root filled tooth in prosthodontic reconstruction (Eckehard Kostka).
Problems associated with root filled teeth as abutments.
20 Non-surgical retreatment (Pierre Machtou and Claes Reit).
Access to the root canal.
Access to the apical area.
Instrumentation of the root canal.
21 Surgical endodontics (Peter Velvart).
General outline of the procedure.
Pain control after surgery.